How is the color of the hottest glass formed

2022-07-30
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How is the color of glass formed

in the large family of glass with a wide variety, in addition to the colorless and transparent glass we often see in our daily life, there are also many colored glasses, including black glass, for example, the car window glass is purple black, and there are blue architectural glass, etc. At traffic intersections, the traffic signal lights should have red, yellow and green glasses as lampshades; Festive nights are full of lights and decorations. Now people often use colored light bulbs (mostly made of glass of various colors) to decorate the festive scene; To take an art photo, you must put a certain color filter lens on the camera lens, which has different shades of yellow, red, blue, green and other colors; Drivers, field workers, steel workers and electric welders should carry protective eyepieces of different colors. A touching drama will be much less effective without the cooperation of colorful lights; In a dance hall with strong music, if there are no laser colors, the dynamic atmosphere of music will be weakened

how did these beautiful glass colors come from

ordinary glass is melted with quartz sand, soda ash and limestone. It is a mixture of unstable silicates that will continue to develop and expand in the machinery industry. The first glass made by people is some small pieces of glass with poor transparency and some colors. Its color is not consciously added by people, but the result of impure raw materials mixed with impurities. At that time, colored glass was only used to make decorations, and the requirements were not high. People just produced colored glass by accident. However, the color glasses we require today have high scientific requirements, which can only be manufactured after the secret of glass color is revealed

after research, it is found that if 0.4 ~ 0.7% colorant is added to the ingredients of ordinary glass, the glass can be colored. Most colorants are metal oxides. We have already known that each metal element has its unique "spectral characteristics", so different metal oxides can show different colors. If these oxides are added to the glass ingredients, the glass will be colored. For example, add chromium oxide (Cr2O is also checking question 3), and the glass is green; When manganese dioxide (MnO2) is added, the glass is purple; Cobalt oxide (Co2O3) is added, and the glass is blue. The protective eyepiece for steelmakers and welders is made of this kind of glass

in fact, the color of glass depends not only on the added colorants, but also on the melting temperature and the nature of furnace flame to adjust the valence of elements, so that the glass presents different colors. For example, if the copper in the glass is in the presence of high priced copper oxide, the glass will appear blue-green; In the presence of low-cost cuprous oxide (C2, structural situation: single rod double acting oil cylinder frame structure u2o), the glass is red. Sometimes, once the glass is burned, it can not display well. The second time, the hydraulic universal testing machine is one of the products with large volume and wide range in the industry. Heating can make the glass show color. This is the case with the precious golden red glass, which is made by adding a small amount of gold to ordinary glass ingredients. After leading secondary melting, gold is distributed in the glass in the form of atoms, and the glass does not show color at this time; When heated to a temperature close to softening, the gold atoms polymerize into colloidal particles, and the glass shows a beautiful red color

now, people use rare earth oxide as colorant to make various high-grade color glasses. The color glass mixed with rare earth elements has bright and clean color, and even changes color in different light. For example, neodymium oxide glass has this characteristic. It shows purplish red under sunlight and blue purple under fluorescence. It is very beautiful. There is a kind of glass that changes color with the intensity of light. People use it as the lens of glasses and the window glass of houses. With this kind of glass as window glass, the interior can maintain a certain brightness, and there is no need to use curtains to shade, so some people call it "automatic curtain". It can also block the passage of ultraviolet rays in the sun. After installing this kind of glass in Library libraries and museums, books and cultural relics can be protected from the damage of ultraviolet rays

in addition to rare earth elements, adding tungsten and platinum directly to the glass can also make color changing glass

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